Part 5; Bamboo Fold with Alternative Materials

Recreating the Bamboo Letter Fold as a yarn wrap was one way to incorporate alternatives to paper. I continued to seek other possible materials but overall I was disappointed by the samples at this stage: I didn’t really achieve the delicacy I was looking for.

Looking back at the pleating exercises in Part 1, I recognised that my samples that included handwritten text were now particularly relevant because the Bamboo Fold is often used for letters. I decided to use tracing paper as an alternative to copy paper, having learned that its translucency offers an attractive means of distortion, revealing multiple layers at once.

The sample (right) just doesn’t work, the pen selected isn’t the right scale for the paper. Compared to the original sample (left) which has a spiky delicacy, the letter fold appears heavy handed and crude. In addition to the problems with the lettering, I found the Bamboo Fold has too many layers, the crisp translucency is lost, the hidden layers are too dense.

In another sample I tried to exploit the opaque white lines that can be achieved when tracing paper is folded and unfolded. I used Paul Jackson’s paper division technique to make linear stripes and then completed the Bamboo Fold. This has more of the elegance I was looking for but felt rather boring, it also bore no relation to printing.

I was able to push the scale of the sampling by folding a large piece of cellophane (from a bouquet of flowers). I learned that some of the issues I was having in the previous samples, with the layers being too dense, were actually related to the size of the material.

The bouquet cellophane actually proved a useful substrate, (as long as I handled it gently, it is prone to tearing). It had an slippery bouncy uncooperative quality that suggested the need for tape or stitch to secure the folds. I was pleased with the addition of machine stitch as I avoided the tendency to be too accurate and also left some areas unstitched. Printing with the sample was disappointing but gave me time to consider the abstract shapes that were developing.

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Partly inspired by stitches in cellophane and partly by a scrap of parcel tape with fine threads embedded into it, I experimented with latex and yarn.

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I had hoped that encasing the strands of yarn in layers of latex would produce a sheer material with ‘floating’ stripes that could be manipulated by folding. I chose Double Knit yarn as I thought it would create ridges that could be printed afterwards. The resulting material is exciting but unsuited to the Bamboo Fold, yet again, I had the scale wrong. I either needed to make a much larger piece or reduce the thickness of the yarn drastically. A sewing thread would be more appropriate to allow the series of folds required.

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I enjoyed pleating thick packaging cardboard in Part 1, discovering it’s pliability and sculptural potential, despite its apparent unsuitability to precision folding. Here the layers have been distressed to reveal some of the internal corrugated furrows. This was an important sample because it helped demonstrate that I didn’t need the folds to be perfect. Using an unexpected and unsuitable material for the folding technique produced interesting shapes. From a ‘Sloppy’ perspective, this is a particularly successful sample.

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It was really important to remember the power of imperfection when I introduced fabric as an alternative to paper. These samples were quite small and fiddly, which allows them to retain the looser aesthetic I am searching for. I still feel the temptation to revert to precision and tidiness, which is apparent in the third sample that incorporates stitch.

Adding stitch to the linen Bamboo Fold secured it but also flattened out the irregularities that were making it interesting. It has a more austere and formal appearance which actually reminded me of a Karate suit, which I guess is unsurprising because of the Origami/Japanese connection.

The observation led me to remember my own experiences of Karate. When my boys were young they had lessons and in the end I got the bug and joined in. Holding the sample in my hands, it felt like the same rough hewn linen and the stitching was just like the turned and reinforced edges. For me Karate was all about understated power. There is no frivolity, no one has to shout about how tough and strong they are. They don’t need to announce it, you can just feel it when you walk in the room. As well as being a lot of fun and great for fitness, Karate gave me confidence in myself and also made me feel like part of something bigger. Remembering all this caused me to make a connection to Japanese Art- simple, understated yet really powerful. It gave me a greater appreciation of the concept of wabi-sabi and it has left me wondering how I could use this knowledge in my own work? Maybe I need to consider what isn’t there being as important as what is? Something well executed doesn’t have to be over complicated? How do wabi-sabi and ‘Sloppy Craft’ relate to one another?

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Part 5; Developing Bamboo Letter Fold

The Bamboo Letter Fold sample stood out as having much potential for development. I was attracted to it’s minimal appearance and the rhythmic division. I felt the rectangular version had the most scope for repetition as a printed unit. I like how the folds layer the paper, which incrementally increases the thickness of the sample, producing a surface that is not flat but has a subtle relief.

It was interesting how paint responded to printing this relief surface, a pattern is created along the folds (below left). I found this irregularity much more interesting than when I printed the paper and then folded it (right) even though the manipulation of stripes was my intention.

This observation took me right back to the beginning of Part 5 when I struggled to decide whether to print and manipulate or manipulate and print. Was the product the 3D block or the plate? This question remains unresolved.

I think what I learned from these early experiments was that I could harness the neat and organised part of myself to develop a regimented scaffold (be it substrate or print block) and then use printing with a looser aesthetic. Order to balance chaos.

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Before I had a chance to test these repetitive blocks I became distracted by the distortion of the text on the book pages I was using.

I was reminded of my spoon wraps from Part2 and the way threads could be layered to create a similar effect. I was concerned that I had been quite limited in my use of materials so far and began to explore the possibility of reinterpreting the Bamboo Fold as a Yarn Wrap.

DSCF5945I worried that I had been a bit too controlled about this yarn wrap, compared to the spoons it looked a bit too carefully constructed. However, my earlier theory that the ‘Sloppiness’ of my printing would be supported by a regular structure was proved right in the prints that followed.

I used the single unit over and over to create a repeated pattern. At first I did this neatly, aligning the edges, the best bit about these prints is that occasionally a particular strong print occurred. I think I prefer the individual compositions rather than the pattern, there is enough going on in each to allow for this editing. I am really happy with the variety of colour combinations produced from such a limited palette. Maybe these four ‘snap shots’ could be presented together as a series?

I really wanted to express what I have learned throughout MMT about the importance of imperfection and celebrate the move away from figuration. I did this by printing the same block haphazardly across the paper. I am pleased with the abstractions, the manipulation of stripes by folding is much less obvious but still clearly apparent. The folded unit has become a mark-making tool on a flat surface. I am not worried that prints are now flat because there has been interchange between 2D and 3D which was the objective of my brief.

Despite the move toward abstraction, I accidentally created a landscape. Although I was only concentrating on a loose pattern repeat the following print suggests mountains without being too literal. The success of the print lies in the passages of open space which allow the viewer to decide what is going on. I recently watched the movies Murder on the Orient Express and Everest, I think I have been subconsciously influenced by the icy settings.

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I tried printing on a variety of surfaces including brown parcel paper, tissue and Abaca. Not all were as well defined as the images included above. The Abaca print below was particularly faint, I am using it to experiment with layering: adhering it to linen and adding stitch to emphasise the marks left by the printing process. This is proving a restful interlude between sampling but probably not a viable outcome as it is possibily to contrived?

After printing with the single unit I returned to the multiple version. I was exchanging the detail provided by the strands of yarn for a more overall effect. These prints have a more calculated arrangement because the main composition was decided before printing. There is a lot going on in the prints, I find the diagonal zigzags encourage the eye to explore the whole image; more and more imperfection is discovered as the broad lines intersect the finer verticals.

Above left, I used watercolour pencils on top of a dark print, the introduction of bright colour adds a greater sense of movement. I did not follow the most obvious path of the zigzag, opting for an asymmetric design instead, this helps provide energy and perhaps a sense of quirkiness?

Considering my previous reluctance to layer prints this set shows how much I learned from Part 4. Rather than printing with solid colour I continued to use subtractive mark making on the plate to prepare the next layer. The introduction of space provides areas for the next layer to fill. The print on the right successfully balances solid colour and pattern. Over printing was slightly offset to prevent the print becoming static.

Finally, I have preserved the ‘print blocks’. I have to decide whether to display them alongside my prints as an explanation of the relationship between the exchange of 2D and 3D or a works of art in their own right.

 

Part 5; What next? Review and Research.

I realised that I hadn’t done nearly enough experimentation to warrant moving on to ‘Stage 5: Sorting’ but I needed to take stock of what I had learned. (The stages in the course-notes are a useful guide but in reality I find they are more cyclical or overlap).

Weaknesses?

Looking at my samples so far my major concern is the lack of material investigation: so far I have only used white copy paper for my samples. Alternate materials could be used: different types of paper produce different results when creased or folded, texture can be introduced to the planes by changing the grain of the paper (or fabric?) and the thickness of the paper would impact on the stability or rigidity of the form. Perhaps the substrate I am folding should be more important to me? -Restricting my exploration to copy paper only, worked well for me in Part 4, as a cheap commodity it allowed me to be more experimental and take greater risks with my printmaking, I am hopeful it will have the same effect here.

Strengths?

I am pleased with the prints I have made using a variety of mark-making tools, they seem appropriate to the manipulation processes I am using. The looseness and spontaneity (‘Sloppiness’) of the mark-making provides an interesting contrast to the uniformity and regularity of the folding. I am enjoying working with a limited colour palette, which has proved to be a useful constraint. Working into the prints with coloured pencils has allowed me to define patterns and adjust the depth of colour in specific areas.

I think I have explored enough folding techniques, I have a variety of outcomes using the three processes I identified: pleating, origami and nets. More needs to be done to discover how the printing will work with the form; In order to do this I need to narrow my approach.

Of the samples so far, I believe Bamboo Letter Fold (Origami), Dodecahedrons and Pyramids (nets) hold the most potential for development through printing and the substitution of materials of construction. There is no representative from the Pleating category. Although I found Rosettes and Columns interesting at the time I find myself less attracted to them now.

Impact of Research?

Hella JONGERIUS¹ uses a single hue for each of her multi-faceted vessels, revealing the impact of light and shade on the colour. This is similar to Anne KYYRO QUINN’s single colour wall panels, where tonal variation is created by pockets of shadow. Am I being too ambitious using pattern where a single colour is sufficient? Will my print swamp the vessel? 

JONGERIUS’ vessels displayed on low platforms, like coffee tables, are only part of the exhibition, they are complimented by other objects, fabrics and woven wall hangings. Colour, Colour Theory and light quality are the key themes that pull the exhibition together. This reflects my interests, the exhibition is not conceptual-forcing me to seek meaning but it is evocative (time of day etc). How can I use this? Could my objects be complimented by wall hangings? Could my drawings be displayed alongside my samples? Cari and I discussed using photographs to explain the evolution of my printed patterns in Part 4.

Sol Le WITT’s Wall Drawings compliment his three dimensional ‘structures’ yet they are not pictorial representations, they seem more like instructional diagrams or blueprints.  I find a close link between Le Witt’s approach and Sloppy Craft, particularly in his use of assistants to complete the actual work. As such: “It is the idea behind the work that surpasses the work itself.” ² Could my 3D sampling inspire drawings or prints that explore variations of the folding process? How can I learn from LeWitt’s self imposed restrictions that permit the investigation of a series of permutations and combinations?

Window display in COES: a local clothing shop, selling expensive formal wear (I have been unable to identify designer). Mannequins with animal heads made from geometric shapes, accompanied by the phrase “Your kind of Wild”.

I’m not convinced by the ‘wildness’ suggested by the tagline. The fierceness of the animals is rather tamed by the calculated, mathematical construction of the heads; this is entirely the point of the advertisement. As an established traditional formal wear supplier Coes are offering a rather a tempered variety of wild- steady, conservative and mild.  Confirms thoughts about my geometric samples (nets) feeling rather ordinary and staid. If I am going to use nets, how can I escape these measured masculine qualities? 

Lynda BENGLIS cropped up in two books I read for my research³: Rapture and Sloppy Craft. Her sculptural forms appear much more feminine and more organic than the regimented geometry of the Coes’ animal heads. Despite being made from hard immobile materials the pleated and twisted forms maintain the movement and sensuality of fabric. I enjoy the way they play with the relationships between hard and soft, mobile and immobile, permanent and temporary, masculine and feminine. Can I use Benglis’ focus on materiality to enliven my samples? Could I be more sensitive and creative with my manipulation? Would the softened forms still provide a stable scaffold for my printmaking or would it be over kill?

¹Hella JONGERIUS. Exhibition Review. Crafts Magazine Sept/Oct 2017.

² https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sol_LeWitt

³ TOWNSEND C, Rapture. Art’s seduction by Fashion (2002) Thames & Hudson                       CHEASLEY PATTERSON and SURETTE. Sloppy Craft. Postdisciplinarity and the Crafts. (2015) BLOOMSBUR

Part Five, Stage 3; Sample Making, Nets

I thoroughly enjoyed making samples from nets. There was something incredibly satisfying in the manipulation of a flat sheet into a three dimensional form. Perhaps the comfort I experienced came from the mathematical nature of the task. I am not usually one for enjoying maths but I did enjoy geometry at school and did a lot of technical drawing for my Design A Level (taken just before CAD took over).

This connection between art and maths made me think about Post/Inter disciplinarity. Did I derive a feeling of certainty from knowing the forms I created were right because they belong to a discipline where right and wrong exist? Are my samples more mathematical than artistic? Or perhaps pattern is where maths and art naturally diverge?  -Many patterns in nature can be mathematically explained (Fibonacci and the Golden Ratio). -Successful geometry gives art a timeless appeal, like a statue from Ancient Greece.

If my printmaking is to be Sloppy perhaps geometric shapes provide the perfect structured foil? However, having gone to great lengths over the course of MMT to shake off my perfectionist tendencies, am I in danger of returning to them now?

DSCF5843I love the quiet simplicity of the above form. The straight edges, emphasised by heavy black line, intersect the soft organic curves that now wrap around the form. Here I think I have found a balance between Sloppy and skilful.

Pentagonal Pyramid  Viewed from different angles the manipulation of the pattern is clear. Do I allow the viewer to see the form from all angles by presenting the 3D object itself? Or do I select how I want it to be viewed, in a photograph or drawing?

Rhombic Prism  This is an interesting shape to manipulate pattern with because as a form it already appears to have been manipulated. It is like a cube with the perspective all wrong, my eye applies knowledge of experience and thinks it understands, then it gets a shock when strange things happen.

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Icosahedron  It sounds silly but I think this is a bit too round! I like the print but as a whole the sample reminds me of a Champions League football that my sons would have begged for as children!DSCF5848

Hexagonal Prism  Again,  I like the print but not the shape. I was toying with the idea of an open box or container but this isn’t what I’m looking for.

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Dodecahedron  Having said the Icosahedron was too round, I expected not to like this sample yet it is one of my favourites. I stopped constructing it because I can see the potential for joining multiples to form an undulating surface. I think would be worth exploring this shape further to see whether a surface or a form develops. I could also consider applying the print to what should be the inside.

DSCF5850The print that I manipulated for the dodecahedron was particularly successful at this scale. I used a comb to remove paint from the plate. The different widths of the teeth have created variation in the density of colour which forms additional bands of stripes. Despite reducing my palette even further there is still much to look at.

Part Five, Stage 3; Sample Making, Origami

I was quite overwhelmed at the vastness of Origami as a technique, to avoid the procrastination trap I decided to select one site and gave myself just one hour to experiment. This strategy was useful because I only made the designs that really appealed. I would definitely employ this tactic again as it produced results quickly, however, I realise it couldn’t be relied on full time as so many opportunities could be missed.

I made five models, sketched below: a pinwheel, a bamboo letter fold, a water-bomb, a cube (designed by Fujimoto) and a butterfly (by Matthews). This gave me more than enough to work with when it came to adding print.

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Pinwheel  Disappointing. Perhaps too simplistic?  I was hoping for more changes of direction.

Bamboo Letter Fold  I really like this one, there is a rhythm to the oppositional folds. The sample is quite thick and solid which suggests there are many hidden layers beneath the folds- originally the contents of a letter. This has connotations of secrets and concealment.

Of all the origami samples I think this one holds the most potential. I experimented with folding a print which has created an interesting distortion of the stripes (below) but there are many alternatives that could be explored through the use of translucent materials that reveal what is going on inside.

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Water-bomb  I didn’t like the way this came together, the cube that was formed was quite Sloppy in appearance. To compliment it I would have to use a very regimented formation of stripes which doesn’t interest me at present.

Fujimoto Cube  This was really cool- a cube created from a flat sheet, no net required! The stripes of my printed paper have been successfully manipulated to work with the form. Spirals are formed on two sides where the folds become triangles, straight lines traverse the remaining four. Although I folded an existing print there is the potential to fold first, then print because when unfolded the form will be recorded on a flat sheet.

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Matthews’ Butterfly  I was drawn to this model because of the earlier sample that was suggestive of a moth. I tried making it from printed paper and printing it once folded. The latter is pleasing but perhaps too obvious?

I am reminded of Cari’s comments that my prints don’t need to be ‘of’ anything. By providing such a figurative representation of the butterfly, nothing is left to the imagination. By comparison, the form below merely suggests it’s link to nature, leaving the viewer to draw their own conclusion. I have not encountered this subtlety in my own work before, I am keen not to spoil it by going down the more obvious route.

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Part 5, Stage 3; Sample Making, More Pleats

This IS the post I intended to write today! I am very aware that I need to concentrate on recording the results of my practical investigations and get on with Part Five! (Although I continue to consider the implications of the Art/Craft debate alongside trying to find a resolution of my Part 5 brief, I am still unclear as to how they will relate in the end).

Aiming for a slightly more complex arrangement of pleats, I decided to explore Rosettes and Columns. I found that this involved a small amount of measuring as the construction relies on the angle of the valley fold between two vertical mountains. Using a protractor, set square and ruler did not cause me to return to my previous over controlling state. The experience I gained from the experiments in my last post taught me you need to be precise but not exact. I was able to use the tools as an extension of myself, rather like one would use a crochet hook or knitting needles.

Rosettes.

I was instantly attracted to the pattern formed by creating a rosette. The photograph below show how when the top quarter is removed, the form becomes more complex. I like the secrets this reveals about its construction. The hexagonal shape seems inextricably linked in my mind to the traditional paper piecing of quilts. This suggests the possibility of joining multiples to form a new surface.DSCF5775 Also revealed, is the reverse side of the print, I decided to explore the possibilities of adding pattern to this central portion, either sympathetically or in opposition.

On the left, the tube was folded to form a flap of the same pattern, in the same orientation. The stripes appear parallel to the edges, the result feels organised and regular. I notice comparisons to concentric circles which I always find interesting to look at but rather than feeling drawn into a spiralling depth, I find the sample pushes me away. There is something suggestive in folds that makes me think of contained energy, rather like a coiled spring. I feel at any moment the sample could leap out at me. (Is this perceived danger once again linked to the colouration?)

The centre portion of the sample on the right was created by adhering a different pattern to the reverse. Although the colour and pattern are matched to the front, simply changing the orientation of the stripes creates a very different effect. Some of the structure of the sample is lost, I don’t find it as powerful as it predecessor.

I found playing with this configuration of folds quite enjoyable and found myself comfortable enough with the technique to try and invent my own form. The result is umbrella like and shares the concentric circle pattern from before. I like the way the pattern disappears into folds only to remerge in just the right place to continue the pattern.

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What makes this sample successful for me is the way regularity is balanced by irregularity; Order is drawn from chaos. The stripes survive the undulations and become more powerful because of their concentric arrangement (which compliments the overall shape). The print contains many blemishes and incidental marks in the yellow sections, these do not spoil the pattern because they are balanced by the regular repetitious rhythms of the folds.

Columns

Columns were an enticing prospect. When a vase or vessel shape is present, I think an object is more easily understood because of our familiarity with it as an object. This is an opinion formed from reading about Hella Jongerius ‘Breathing Colour’ ¹ which I made notes on in my sketchbook as it helped me understand how colour and form can relate. This was an important discovery because as the photograph below shows, the intricacies of the pleated columns are perfectly suited to a plain white surface.

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Twisted columns proved a useful way to fragment a striped pattern. Reviewing my samples I noticed some were more attractive than others; if I use a column in my final resolution to the brief I need to be considerate of height/width. The taller thinner columns appear more elegant, although this is difficult to judge because the horizontal bands on the centre and right are too bold and heavy.

When arranged vertically, the stripes were much more sympathetic to the shape and form of the column. Two similar prints have been combined, the twist allows both patterns to be viewed from the same angle. I like the apparent complexity of this sample.

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For some of my samples, including the one above, I reworked my acrylic prints using watercolour pencils. Although I was looking to redefine the stripes, I was careful to maintain the spontaneity of the original. The idea that folds are controlled and regular, while the prints are more chaotic and imperfect continues to be a central theme.

I like the idea of presenting my solution to the brief as a set of vertical columns. However, I still want to consider that multiples could form a fractured undulating surface like Giles Miller. I tried viewing the columns from different perspectives to see if they could be used in this manner but wasn’t convinced.

What I noticed as I viewed the samples was that the internal space at the top and bottom of each column holds potential for decoration. The shapes are the same as a rosette but are angled. Perhaps instead of joining flat rosettes (which would be like patchwork piecing) I could link the edges of the columns to create something far more three dimensional?

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¹ CRAFTS MAGAZINE 268, GREENHALGH I, Capturing the Essence, Breathing Colour by Hella Jongerius. P80/1

Part 5, Sample Making and Reflections on Sloppy Craft and Postdisciplinarity.

This isn’t the post I sat down to write this morning. I intended to record my next set of pleated samples, instead I have reflected on the relationship between Art and Craft. The following are observations based on my research of Sloppy Craft and Postdisciplinarity. It should be understood that I am not claiming to be ‘right’ or that I have made any definite conclusions. This post simply records my thoughts:

Making Rosettes

At first the rosettes were really tricky to form. A cylinder of paper containing the necessary folds is created, then there is a push and pull struggle as you try to collapse the structure -will it, won’t it? It is really exciting when the folds eventually contract, revealing their new form. It feels almost magical the first few times but repetition dissolves this feeling as you begin to understand how and why it happens.

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I found myself admitting that I am familiar with this chain of events, new processes fascinate me. When I see objects, my mind is trying to figure out how they are made, I am willing to investigate and try it out myself. However, process led my approach might be, once I understand how it works I am likely to lose interest and move on to the next thing that grabs my attention. Perhaps this is why I have so many unfinished projects?

I wonder if this is endemic in our modern YouTube/Pinterest society? It is possible to learn and teach yourself as many processes as you have time for. Shops like Hobbycraft and a multitude of online stores tempt us with the materials required. A lengthy apprenticeship is no longer necessary: you don’t have to dedicate the rest of your life to being a ceramist just to experience playing with clay. You don’t even have to attend a pottery class. Order a lump of air-drying clay from Amazon and a few days later it will arrive at your doorstep… We can have it all! -At little cost to both time and money. Does this make you a craftsman? -I don’t think so!!!

Does this availability of knowledge and materials create friction in the Craft world? As I have considered the art/craft debate, I have been quite shocked at the how the Craft World turns on itself. On several occasions reading Crafts Magazine and the Sloppy Craft book ¹, I noticed the derision and marginalisation of the amateur, DIY crafter. Particularly in Sandra Alfoldy’s chapter: ‘Doomed to Failure’ P79¹

Perhaps availability is central to the increased popularity of Crafts, or maybe people are seeking a therapeutic antidote to fast living, similar to the Back to the Land Movement of the 1970s? Instead of feeling happy that multitudes are experiencing the joy of creation (that Industrialisation stole from the masses) many seem to be afraid of Crafts association with the amateur, although this can be countered by the number of professionals organising community craft projects and Craftivism.

Historically, a skilled craftsman commanded a certain degree of respect and power (think of Guilds and Unions set up to protect their status), and I believe this was their right: compensation for both talent and dedication. However, what if the avant-garde decided to adopt a Sloppy aesthetic? Are they undermining traditional values? I think they are and the danger of this is that now an amateur could produce the work of a professional. No wonder Craft is turning on itself, instead of concentrating on aligning itself more positively with Art.

Maybe it is Craft’s insistence of being viewed equally to Art that has led to the unkempt aesthetic? To cutting corners? To learning only what is essential? Instead of concentrating on quality of finish, the ‘idea’ behind the crafted object becomes the focus. Perhaps ‘Conceptual Craft’ would be a more suitable term than ‘Sloppy’, this would help explain that the aesthetic is secondary to the work without implying that it is unskilled?

Forgive me if I am over simplifying but I see the difference between Art and Craft as similar to the relationship between Football and Rugby. They are the same because they are both sports and they both are played with a ball, by a team. BUT you can’t play the same! You can’t pick up the ball and run with it when you are playing football (nor can you stamp on anyone’s head!) You can’t sustain an injury on the rugby pitch and writhe around the floor in over dramatized agony. Football fans are separated for fear of violence and hooliganism; Rugby supporters from both teams sit together in civilised harmony.

Perhaps what I want to say is, instead of competing against each other Art and Craft should admit they are different games with different rules. They share similarities but they fulfil different purposes. They are perceived by the viewer in different ways. An amalgamation of football and rugby would equal an entirely different game -American Football? -and what an odd game that is! It mixes the rules of football and rugby to produce something in between (that is both and neither). American Football seems to rely on the spectacular, it’s players wear costumes are designed to make them look bigger than they are and nobody really understands the rules… Maybe it is Conceptual Art in this analogy?